Towards Metrology 4.0 in Dimensional Measurements
More details
Hide details
Institute of Mechanical Technology, Poznan University of Technology, Poland
Institute of Material Technology, Poznan University of Technology, Poland
Submission date: 2023-01-23
Final revision date: 2023-02-26
Acceptance date: 2023-02-27
Online publication date: 2023-03-03
Publication date: 2023-04-12
Corresponding author
Michal Wieczorowski   

Institute of Mechanical Technology, Poznan University of Technology, Piotrowo 3, 60-965, Poznan, Poland
Journal of Machine Engineering 2023;23(1):100-113
The paper presents the transformations taking place in length and angle metrology related to Metrology 4.0, a measurement strategy resulting from Industry 4.0. The coming reality will see the development of communication between systems and their components, as well as the individual sensors belonging to them. The Internet of Things and artificial intelligence as well as the possibility of using augmented or virtual reality will play a momentous role. The demand for these technologies results in the development of new specialized software and hardware solutions, the use and availability of which are diametrically different compared to the past. Also the use of AI and cybersecurity in metrology is a topic that is receiving increasing attention. Metrology 4.0 is therefore becoming a very important part of the functioning of industry, changing the philosophy and organization of measurements carried out on the basis of new measurement techniques.
SAVIO E., DE CHIFFRE L., SCHMITT R., 2007, Metrology of Freeform Shaped Parts, CIRP Annals, 56/2, 810–835.
GAPINSKI B., WIECZOROWSKI M., et al., 2019, Use of White Light and Laser 3D Scanners for Measurement of Mesoscale Surface Asperities, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, Springer, Cham, 239–256.
BRADLEY C., 2000, Integration of an Optical Roughness Sensor with a Co-Ordinate Measuring Machine, Sensor Review, 20/1, 24–30.
SLADEK J., 2016, Coordinate Metrology Accuracy of Systems and Measurements, Springer, Berlin.
ALALUSS M., KURTH R., et al., 2022, Potential of Tool Clamping Surfaces in Forming Machines for Cognitive Production, J. Mach. Eng., 22/3, 116–131,
FRIEDRICH C., IHLENFELDT S., 2022, Spatial Compliance Measurement of a Clamping Table with Integrated Force Sensors, J. Mach. Eng., 22/1, 70–83,
BLEICHER F., RAMSAUER C., et al., 2021, Tooling Systems with Integrated Sensors Enabling Data Based Process Optimization, J. Mach. Eng., 21/1, 5–21,
ISA M.A., LAZOGLU I., 2017, Design and Analysis of a 3D Laser Scanner, Measurement, 111, 122–133.
REKAS A., KACZMAREK T., WIECZOROWSKI M., et al., 2021, Analysis of Tool Geometry for the Stamping Process of Large‐Size Car Body Components Using a 3D Optical Measurement System, Materials, 14, 7608.
SWOJAK N., WIECZOROWSKI M., JAKUBOWICZ M., 2021, Assessment of Selected Metrological Properties of Laser Triangulation Sensors, Measurement, 176, 109190.
CARMIGNATO S., DEWULF W., LEACH R., 2018, Industrial X-Ray Computed Tomography, Springer.
GAPINSKI B., WIECZOROWSKI M., et al., 2017, The Application of Micro Computed Tomography to Assess Quality of Parts Manufactured by Means of Rapid Prototyping, Polymers, 62/1, 53–59.
KRUTH J.P., BARTSCHER M., et al., 2011, Computed Tomography for Dimensional Metrology, CIRP Annals, 60, 821–842.
GAPINSKI B., WIECZOROWSKI M., et al., 2022, Verification of Computed Tomograph for Dimensional Measurements, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, Springer, Cham, 142–155.
MACDONALD D.A., BARTKOWIAK T., et al., 2022, Revisiting Lithic Edge Characterization with MicroCT: Multiscale Study of Edge Curvature, Re-Entrant Features, and Profile Geometry on Olduvai Gorge Quartzite Flakes, Arch. Anthrop. Sci., 14, 33.
GAPINSKI B., WIECZOROWSKI M., et al., 2018, Measurement of Surface Topography Using Computed Tomography, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, Springer, Cham, 815–824.
TOWNSEND A., PAGANI L., et al., 2017, Areal Surface Texture Data Extraction from X-ray Computed Tomography Reconstructions of Metal Additively Manufactured Parts, Prec. Eng., 48, 254–264.
PAGANI L., TOWNSEND A., et al., 2019, Towards a New Definition of Areal Surface Texture Parameters on Freeform Surface: Re-Entrant Features and Functional Parameters, Measurement, 141, 442–459.
WIECZOROWSKI M., SWOJAK N., et al., 2021, The Use of Drones in Modern Length and Angle Metrology, Modern Technologies Enabling Safe and Secure UAV Operation in Urban Airspace, 59, 125–140.
SADAOUI S.E., MEHDI-SOUZANI C., LARTIGUE C., 2022, Multisensor Data Processing in Dimensional Metrology for Collaborative Measurement of a Laser Plane Sensor Combined to a Touch Probe, Measurement, 188, 110395.
WIECZOROWSKI M., CELLARY A., MAJCHROWSKI R., 2010, The Analysis of Credibility and Reproducibility of Surface Roughness Measurement Results, Wear, 269/5–6, 480–484.
PAWLUS P., REIZER R., WIECZOROWSKI M., 2018, Comparison of Results of Surface Texture Measurement Obtained with Stylus Methods and Optical Methods, Metr. Meas. Syst., 25/3, 589–602.
MATHIA T.G., PAWLUS P., WIECZOROWSKI M., 2011, Recent Trends in Surface Metrology, Wear, 271/3-4, 494–508.
VORBURGER T.V., 1992, Methods for Characterizing Surface Topography, Tutorials in Optics, Washington.
BJUGGREN M., KRUMMENACHER L., MATTSSON L., 1997, Noncontact Surface Roughness Measurement of Engineering Surfaces by Total Integrated Infrared Scanning, Prec. Eng., 20/1, 33–45.
WOOLLEY R.W., 1991, Pneumatic Method for Making Fast, Higher-Resolution, Noncontacting Measurement of Surface Topography, Proc. SPIE, 1573, 205–215.
GARBINI J.L., JORGENSEN J.E., et al., 1988, Fringe-Field Capacitive Profilometry, Surface Topography, 1, 99–110.
VORBURGER T.V., DAGATA J.A., et al., 1997, Characterization of Surface Topography, CIRP Annals, 46, 2, 597–620.
BREITMEIER U., AHLERS R.-J., 1987, Dynamically Focusing Electro-Optical Sensor-System for Microprofilometry, Proc. SPIE, 802, 170–173.
PERRIN H., SANDOZ P., TRIBILLON G.M., 1994, Profilometry by Spectral Encoding of the Optical Axis, Proc. SPIE, 2340, 366–374.
YOUNG R., WARD J., SCIRE F., 1972, The Topografiner: An Instrument for Measuring Surface Microtopography, Rev. Sci. Instr., 43, 7, 999-1011.
BINNING G., QUATE C.F., GERBER C., 1986, Atomic Force Microscope, Phys. Rev. Let., 56/9, 930–933.
DE GROOT P., 2015, Principles of Interference Microscopy for the Measurement of Surface Topography, Adv. Opt. Photon., 7, 1–65.
WINDECKER R., HAIBLE P., TIZIANI H.J., 1995, Fast Coherence Scanning Interferometry for Measuring Smooth, Rough and Spherical Surfaces, J. Mod. Opt., 42, 2059–2069.
TIZIANI H., WEGNER M., STEUDLE D., 2000, Confocal Principle for Macro- and Microscopic Surface and Defect Analysis, Opt. Eng., 39, 32–39.
DANZL R., HELMLI F., SCHERER S., 2018, Focus Variation - a Robust Technology for High Resolution Optical 3D Surface Metrology, J. Mech. Eng., 57, 245–256.
TISHKO T.V., TITAR V.P., TISHKO D.N., 2005, Holographic Methods of Three-Dimensional Visualization of Microscopic Phase Objects, J. Opt. Tech., 72, 203–209.
BUNDAY B.D., BISHOP M., BENNETT M., 2002, Quantitative Profile-Shape Measurement Study on a CD-SEM with Application to Etch-Bias Control, Proc. SPIE, 4689, 138–150.
WEYLAND M., 2002, Electron Tomography of Catalysts, Topics in Catalysis, 21/4, 175–183.
MILLER T., ADAMCZAK S., et al., 2017, Influence of Temperature Gradient on Surface Texture Measurements with the Use of Profilometry, Bull. Pol. Acad. Sci., Tech. Sci., 65/1, 53–61.
GROCHALSKI K., WIECZOROWSKI M., et al., 2020, Thermal Sources of Errors in Surface Texture Imaging, Materials, 13/10, 2337.
BARTKOWIAK T., MENDAK M., et al., 2020, Analysis of Surface Microgeometry Created by Electric Discharge Machining, Materials, 13/17, 3830.
SCHMEIDL K., WIECZOROWSKI M., et al., 2021, Frictional Properties of the TiNbTaZrO Orthodontic Wire - A Laboratory Comparison to Popular Archwires, Materials, 14/21, 6233,
PAWLUS P., REIZER R., WIECZOROWSKI M., 2021, Analysis of Surface Texture of Plateau-Honed Cylinder Liner – A review, Prec. Eng., 72, 807–822.
PAWLUS P., ZELASKO W., et al., 2017, Calculation of Plasticity Index of Two-Process Surfaces, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., J: J. Eng. Trib., 231/5, 572–582.
ZAWADZKI P., TALAR R., 2022, Bone Abrasive Machining: Influence of Tool Geometry and Cortical Bone Anisotropic Structure on Crack Propagation, J. Funct. Biomater., 13, 154.
LEACH R., THOMPSON A., SENIN N., 2017, A Metrology Horror Story: the Additive Surface, Proc. ASPE, Hong Kong, China, Materials Science, 54923239.
SAYLES R.A., THOMAS T.R., 1976, Mapping a Small Area of a Surface, J. Phys. E, 9, 10, 855–861.
WIECZOROWSKI M., GAPINSKI B., SWOJAK N., 2019, The Use of Optical Scanner for Analysis of Surface Defects, Proc. DAAAM, 30/1, 76–85.
HERRAEZ J., MARTINEZ J.C., et al., 2016, 3D Modelling by Means of Videogrammetry and Laser Scanners for Reverse Engineering, Measurement, 87, 216–227.
KASCAK J., HUSAR J., et al., 2022, Conceptual Use of Augmented Reality in the Maintenance of Manufacturing Facilities, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, Springer, Cham, 241–252.
WIECZOROWSKI M., KUCHARSKI D., et al., 2021, Theoretical Considerations on Application of Artificial Intelligence in Coordinate Metrology, 6th Int. Conf. Nanotech. Instr. Meas., NanofIM.,
SCHWARTZ B., 2016, The Paradox of Choice, Harper Collins Publishers.
KHANAFER M., SHIRMOHAMMADI S., 2020, Applied AI in Instrumentation and Measurement: The Deep Learning Revolution, IEEE I&M Mag., 23/6, 10–17.
SEEWIG J., 2005, Linear and Robust Gaussian Regression Filters, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 13/1, 254–257.
PAWLUS P., REIZER R., et al., 2019, Morphological Filtration of Two-Process Profiles, Bull. Pol. Acad. Sci., Tech. Sci., 67/1, 107–113,
ZENG W., JIANG X., SCOTT P.J., 2011, A Generalised Linear and Nonlinear Spline Filter, Wear, 271, 544–547.
JIANG X.Q., BLUNT L., STOUT K.J., 2000, Development of a Lifting Wavelet Representation for surface characterization, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A., 456, 2283–2313.
BROWN C.A., HANSEN H.N., et al., 2018, Multiscale Analyses and Characterizations of Surface Topographies, CIRP Annals, 67/2, 839–862.
PAWLUS P., REIZER R., WIECZOROWSKI M., 2021, Functional Importance of Surface Texture Parameters, Materials, 14/18, 5326.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top